Smoking, including second-hand smoke, increases the risk of oncology contraction in women. In fact, there is a special gene in feminine bodies that replies for tumour growth in case of smoking. That is why women are more prone to lung cancer.
Lung cancer signs in women
When disease progresses, a woman can find the following signs of lung
- apathy, tonus fall, absence of appetite;
- rare and short cough at the beginning and attack-like exhausting cough with overflow expectorations further;
- labored breathing on mild exertion;
- spitting up blood;
Men can reveal other evidence enclosing pain in chest, especially during inhaling and hoarseness. At the beginning of the illness development people repeatedly get pulmonary fever and bronchitis.
The signs of later phases of lung cancer for women include:
- enlargement of lymphatic nodes;
- icterus indicating germination of metastases in liver;
- bones fragility leading to often fractures.
Both genders can suffer from the following symptoms at later phases of the disease when tumour penetrates organs and tissues closely located:
- pain in shoulders appearing because of the damaged nerve endings;
- ligaments paralysis;
- troubled ingestion;
- obstructive jaundice;
- painful bones.
Procrastination with diacrisis and adequate treatment draws in fatal outcome. It is the reason why it is highly advised to pay attention to additional exterior indication of lung cancer for both sexes:
- puffiness of neck, upper part of body and face that indicates enlargement of lymphatic nodes and blocking of the main blood-vessel;
- dull and grey face or yellow whites of the eyes and skin;
- subdermal varicosity in chest;
- chronic inflammation in underarm and supraclavicular lymphatic nodes.
Types of lung cancer
Lung cancer is also referred as bronchogenic carcinoma. Definite characteristics of tumour cells allow classifying lung cancer by 2 main types: small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
Around 20% of all existing lung cancer events are identified as SCLC. The term “oat-cell carcinoma” is also used to identify this most rapidly developing and severe type, closely connected with smoking. But it also attacks non-smokers (1% of patients). It rapidly metastasizes to different organs. In the majority of cases SCLC is identified after its extension.
NSCLC is considered to be the most prevailing type – it covers approximately 80% of patients. It is subdivided into 3 main types:
- Acinic cell adenocarcinoma is the most widespread type of NSCLC (half of all NSCLC cases). It involves smokers together with non-smokers. Generally, adenocarcinomas appear in peripheral or external areas of lungs. Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma is a derived type of adenocarcinoma. It often spreads on the walls of existing alveoles and develops in different parts of lungs.
- Squamous carcinoma, also known as planocellular (epidermoid) carcinoma, represents 30% of all NSCLC cases. It typically forms in central part of breast in air tubes.
- Large-cell carcinoma or undifferentiated cancer is least spread type of NSCLC.
In addition, indicated types of NSCLC combine in various ways that compose 5-10% of all lung cancer records.
Bronchial carcinoid covers 5%. At the moment this tumour is identified, it is minuscule (3-4 cm or smaller). Generally, it accrues to people under forty and they are not provoked by smoking. Bronchial carcinoids can be revealed at early stages and surgically removed.
It is a rare case when malignant tumour grows in lugs from auxiliary tissue (plain muscles, immune response cells or blood vessels). Sometimes there is tumour that is metastasis of primary cancer of other parts of the body because tumour from any organ can expand to lungs.
Women at risk
Despite that lung cancer indication might be similar for women and men, pathology risk is different among genders. This has been proved by several modern researches including the study by Jemi Olak and Yolanda Colson .
According to the research, women are more exposed to lung cancer due to the mix of genetic, hormonal and metabolic reasons. For example, most people who suffer from lung cancer, but have never smoked, are female. Moreover, adenocarcinoma is prevalent in this case.
It is crucial to monitor lung cancer signs and seek help from your doctor in case you are worried.