Any vaccine production is quite long process. The whole procedure of production and testing is taking approximately 19 weeks.
To some extend the reason is that its production starts from virus growing. After the virus multiplied, it’s isolated and purified to receive the vaccine. Then the vaccine needs to be clinically investigated on various patients. The purpose of the initial examination is to determine the effectiveness and short-term safety of (security within a month after admission). Only after these serious measures the vaccine is testified on great amount of volunteers and there is investigated the quantity of infected and dead among those who received and do not received the vaccine.
The main vaccine against swine flu producers are Baxter International, a U.S. company and the Swiss company Novartis. In particular cases the vaccine consists of several antigens selected out of one or more subtypes of human flu H1N1, H2N2, H3N2, swine influenza subtype H1N1, H1N2, H3N1 and canine or equine influenza H7N7, H3N8 or chicken influenza.
Adjuvant or additional chemical substances are used in some vaccines to enhance immune system response. The advantage of its application is that due to additional substances there are necessary fewer antigens to achieve the same effect. Consequently out of one vaccine dosage it is possible to receive four ones. Usually adjuvants are not used in vaccine production process, thus the producer may use more simplified system of license receiving, because due to seasonal influenza insignificant changes are applied in vaccine each year in order to fit it under changed virus strain. The implementation of additional substances presupposes significant changes of vaccine constituent.
It is expected that pandemic flu effectiveness will correspond to seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness. Moreover its effect may decrease among aged people and small children. Need it to say that there are necessary to pass some weeks after vaccination for organism to produce antibodies, which provides protection from virus. Thus, in the first two weeks after the vaccination there is still a risk of infection.
The premeditated tests show that for adults it is necessary one inoculation to enhance the immune to virus. For children younger than ten years USA experts advise to do two vaccinations. The first dosage allows for body to determine the unknown virus strain, while the next one reinforces immune system reaction.