Dominant and Recessive Genes

Gene inheritance is a key point in our lives. Genes are responsible for the traits that we are likely to get from our parents and their parents. They are known under the name of hereditary traits, and there are more than 200 of them. Besides, there are dominant and recessive traits – that is why we tend to look like our fathers or mothers and have something of their character as well.

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Dominant and recessive genes are responsible for making us the way we are. Genes are known to be located on specific DNA segments. A gene represents a groping of chromosomes, and they, in their turn, are found in every cell’s nucleus. Every person’s body has got each gene in two copies, and they are singular only in eggs and sperms. These copies are the ones that a father and a mother passed to us. Therefore, we resemble the former in some traits and the latter in others.

In most of the genes there are variations – they are called alleles. It is common that an individual generally inherits either the same allele pair or a different one. When it comes to dominant and recessive traits, it is believed that dominant alleles represent dominant traits. However, this is not always so. It is possible that there are dominant alleles, and alleles, expressing a trait, may be recessive. Therefore, many individuals have recessive traits.

The List

You have seen these dominant and recessive genes, perhaps, without thinking about them. Here is a list of the most frequently met dominant and recessive traits in humans.

  • First of all, it is earlobe attachment. It is a recessive gene that is in charge of attached earlobes, and dominant, for unattached.
  • A dominant gene is responsible for the trick with rolling the lateral edges of the tongue together. The inheritance of a recessive gene means that a person cannot do such things.
  • Dominant and recessive genes are also responsible for the cleft and smooth chins respectively.
  • The same goes for dimples – the presence of dimples means that a dominant gene is present in a person, and if you are unlucky to have this charming trait, then your gene is recessive.
  • Handedness also depends on the gene inherited. Dominant and recessive genes are responsible for a person being more skillful with one hand or the other. The majority of people inherit the dominant gene and therefore they are right-handed.

What Else?

  • Dominant and recessive genes also determine whether you have straight or curly hair. Possessors of a dominant gene are curly heads, and the ones with a recessive gene have straight hair.
  • Freckles are also the result of presence of a dominant gene in the pair, whereas those without these charming little things have apparently inherited both genes that are recessive.
  • Allergy is also a result of allergy gene inheritance. It generally comes from one of the parents, and there is a strong chance that he or she is likely to pass this proneness to allergy to at least one of 4 kids. It is not necessarily that allergy will develop inevitably. Actually, the rate is 25%, and it is higher when both parents are allergic.
  • Color blindness is known as a genetic disorder, where a recessive allele is present on the X chromosome. In women, there are 2 X chromosomes, and one of them contains an allele with normal vision. Men, on the other hand, have got only one X chromosome and, therefore, if they have got a colorblindness allele, a man is likely to be colorblind. Therefore, men are often colorblind and women are not.

All in all, dominant and recessive genes are responsible for the appearance of some traits in humans. Genes are responsible not only for the particulars of physical appearances, but also for the emotional patterns, health and illness proneness. It is hard to tell whether your child will be like you or your spouse.

References:

Facts About Color Blindness – Nei.nih.gov
What are Dominant and Recessive? – Learn.genetics.utah.edu

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